Carla Palumbo
Carla Palumbo
affiliation: Università di Modena-Reggio Emilia
research area(s): Experimental Medicine, Stem Cells And Regenerative Medicine
Course: Molecular and Regenerative Medicine
University/Istitution: Università di Modena-Reggio Emilia
Since 1998 Associate Professor of Human Anatomy (SSD BIO/16) in the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. She is currently winning the competition for Full Professor of Human Anatomy in the same Faculty (waiting to be taken into the role). Director of Postgraduate School in Sport Medicine since November 2008. Tasks for the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery: delegate for “Orienteering for University Studies” and component of the Scientific Committee. Coordinator of the Section of Human Anatomy of the Department of Biomedical Sciences. Award for the best scientific work presented at the XLI Congress of the Italian Society of Anatomy -SIAI (Torino-Italy, September 1986). Invited speaker for the opening lecture at the XXXIIIrd European Symposium on Calcified Tissue (Heidelberg, Germany, April 1996). Executive Manager for the Seventh International Congress of International Society of Bone Morphometry (ISBM), Alghero (Italy), October 1996. Editorial activity: (2001) translation of the text “Elements of Human Anatomy and Physiology ” by Elaine N. Marieb (Zanichelli Ed.); (2004 and 2007) co-editor of the comments to the anatomical tables in the text “Guide to interpretation of the Atlas of Human Anatomy” by Frank H. Netter (Masson Ed.); (2008) author of the II Chapter (Embriology and Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) of the text “Thymus Gland Pathology. Clinical, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Features” (Sprinter-Verlag IT); Fondamenti di Anatomia Umana (Palumbo et al-Sorbona 2010).
Since 2010 she is a member of the Editorial Board of the “Journal of Osteology and Biomaterials” (ISSN: 2036-6795).
She is author of a total of 150 publications, including full papers, abstracts, book and book-chapters.
Didactic activity, as holder, is all performed in the various courses of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of Modena and Reggio Emilia: Human Anatomy I and II for the Course in Medicine and Surgery, Human Anatomy for the sanitary course in Techniques of biomedical laboratory, and teachings of Human Anatomy in various Postgraduate Schools. Regular teacher of Normal Human Anatomy for the Military Academy of Modena.
The scientific activity mostly concerns the histophysiopathology of bone tissue, particularly regarding the following topics: the process of osteoblast-into-osteocyte differentiation; osteocyte metabolic activity in different regions of the skeleton; the role of osteocyte in the cicle of bone remodelling; the osteocyte as mechanosensor and chemoreceptor of bone; the “osteocyte-bone lining cell system” as transducer of mechanical strains into biological signals; static and dynamic osteogenesis during bone histogenesis and bone repair; osteocyte-osteoclast morphological relationships and the putative role of osteocyte in bone remodelling; Leptin expression in the cells of the osteogenic lineage in the skeleton of growing rats and adult humans and Leptin effect on mice fetal primary ossification centers during the early phases of bone histogenesis; Ferutinin effect on the bone metabolism, and correlated side-effects, in preventing and recovering osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats. Participation to PRIN co-financing in 1997, 1999, 2001, 2004. She was coordinator (2006-2008) of a research project concerning the “Study of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSC) and their use in regenerative medicine”, financed by funds of CARIMO Foundation and Vignola Foundation. At the moment, she is coordinator of the following research projects: 1) “Study of phytoestrogen effects on osteoblast-like cultures in triggering in vitro osteogenesis in order to improve bone lesion repair” - financed by funds (2009-2010) of Vignola Foundation; 2) “Evaluation of the effects of bio-physic stimuli on chondrogenic differentiation induced in MSCs” – financed by Regional funds 2009-2011 “Regional Project for biomedical” (General Title: “New Device for the treatment of cartilage lesions”).
1.Riccio M., Resca E., Bertoni L., Cavani F., Sena P., Ferretti M., Baldini A., Palumbo C., DepolA. RGB method in immunofluorescence investigations on stem cells. Opt Laser Technol 43: 317-322, 2011

2. Ferretti M., Bertoni L., Cavani F., Zavatti P., Resca E., Carnevale G., Benelli A., Zanoli P., Palumbo C. Influence of Ferutinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. II: role in recovering osteoporosis. J Anat 217: 48-56, 2010

3. Marotti G., Zaffe D., Ferretti M., Palumbo C. Static osteogenesis and dynamic osteogenesis: their relevance in dental bone implants and biomaterial osseointegration. J Osteol Biomater 1(3): 133-139, 2010.

4. Palumbo C., Ferretti M., Bertoni L., Cavani F., Resca E., Casolari B., Carnevale G., Zavatti M., Montanari C., Benelli A., Zanoli P. Influence of ferutinin on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. I: role in preventing osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Metab 27:538-545, 2009.

5. Bertoni L., Ferretti M., Cavani F., Zavatti M., Resca E., Benelli A., Palumbo C. Leptin increases growth of primary ossification centers in fetal mice. J Anat 215: 577-583, 2009.

6. Palumbo C., Ferretti M., Bonucci P., Sena P., Bertoni L., Cavani F., Celli A., Rovesta C. Two peculiar conditions following a coma: a clinical case of heterotopic ossification concomitant with keloid formation. Clin. Anat., 21, 348-354, 2008.

7. Pagani F., Sibilia V., Cavani F., Ferreti M., Bertoni L., Palumbo C., Lattuada N., De Luca E., Rubinacci A., Guidobono F. Sympathectomy alters bone architecture in adult growing rats. J. Cell. Biochem., 104, 2155-2164, 2008

8. Bedogni A., Blandamura S., Lokmic Z., Palumbo C., Ragazzo M., Ferrari F., Tregnaghi A., Pietrogrande F., Procopio O., Saia G., Ferretti M., Bedogni G., Chiarini L., Ferronato G., Ninfo V., Lo Russo L., Lo Muzio L., Nocini P.F. Bisphosphonate-associated jawbone osteonecrosis: a correlation between imaging techniques and histopathology. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod.,105(3), 358-364, 2008.

9. Marotti G, Palumbo C. The mechanism of transduction of mechanical strains into biological signals at the bone cellular level. Eur J Histochem 51(1):65-69. 2007.

10. Ferretti M., Palumbo C., Bertoni L., Cavani F., Marotti G Does Static precede dynamic osteogenesis in endochondral ossification as occurs in intramembranous ossification? Anat. Rec.(A) 288A:1158-1162, 2006.

11. Guidobono F., Pagani F., Sibila V., Netti C., Lattuada N., Rapetti D., Mrak E., Villa I., Cavani F., Bertoni L., Palumbo C., Ferretti M., Marotti G., Rubinacci A. Different skeletal regional response to continuous brain infusion of leptin in the rat. Peptides 27: 1426-1433, 2006.

12. Palumbo C., Ferretti M., Marotti G. Osteocyte dendrogenesis in static and dinamic bone formation: an ultrastructural study. Anat. Rec. 278A: 474-480, 2004.

13.In vivo Leptin expression in cartilage and bone cells of growing rats and adult humans. Morroni M., De Matteis R., Palumbo C., Ferretti M., Villa I., Rubinacci A., Cinti S., Marotti G. J. Anat., 205, 291-296, 2004.

14.Apoptosis durino intramembranous ossification. Palumbo C., Ferretti M., DepolA. J Anat 203: 589-598, 2003.
Project Title:
Anti-inflammatory effect of pulsed electro-magnetic fields (PEMFs) in maintaining the chondrogenic phenotype of conditioned MSCs

The project concerns in vitro investigations on pellets of cartilage to treat with electromagnetic fields in order to study over time maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype, in presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mesenchimal Stem Cells (MSCs) taken from bone marrow are conditioned towards the chondrogenic lineage in mono-layer and/or pellet cultures by means of appropriate growth factors. The preliminary target is to standardize the method to obtain chondrocyte pellets in terms of a) type/amount of withdrawal, b) time/degree of differentiation, and c) amount of extracellular matrix production. Final aim is to extend over time chondrocyte differentiation, checking the phenotype maintenance (preventing fibroblast trans-differentiation) after adding pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-beta1) in culture medium with/without the application of pulsed electro-magnetic fields (PEMFs). The goal is to integrate regenerative medicine techniques to apply in recovering of joint cartilage lesions with bio-physic energy devices, in order to obtain a stable-in-time recover of physiologic function of articular surfaces that suffered a severe injury.

Project Title:
Biochemical osteoporosis Induced In rat Models: time/manner of bone mass recovering with/without administration of osteoprotective substances

This project, based on animal model, concerns investigations on time and manner of bone mass recover, after induction of biochemical osteoporosis by means of feeding with calcium-deficient diet and successive restoration of normal diet, with/without administration of drugs or substances of vegetal origin, as Phytoestrogens. In particular, the attention will be focused on: a) the time and onset sites of new osteogenesis, b) the pathway of its evolution (static-SO and/or dynamic-DO osteogenesis) and c) the type of newly-formed bone tissue (woven or lamellar bone) and the correspondent quality by the mechanical viewpoint.
An intriguing problem is that SO-bone is a poor quality bone because of its woven texture and the high microporosity, due to the many cluster of osteocyte lacunae it contains, whereas DO-bone generally is a lamellar bone, mechanically much more resistant. Therefore it becomes important to know how long SO goes on before DO starts, to establish when a poor quality bone is reinforced with a bone actually capable of resisting mechanical loading.

Background: Our research group have demonstrated, for the first time, by structural and ultrastructural observations, the existence of two different mechanisms of bone formation, namely, static osteogenesis (SO) and dynamic osteogenesis (DO), occurring in sequence during intramembranous ossification in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. We respectively named them static and dynamic, because the former is characterized by stationary osteoblasts irregularly arranged in cords, variously polarized and that transform into osteocytes in the same place where they differentiate, thus allowing the formation of a preliminary trabecular bone not valid by the mechanical viewpoint. Later, on the surfaces of SO-trabecular bony framework, dynamic osteogenesis is mainly involved in bone compaction, i.e., in filling primary haversian spaces with primary osteons. At the present moment, we believe that different factors and signals should be involved in triggering and directing the two different types of osteogenesis, in both normal and pathological (fracture healing as well as osteoporotic bone mass recovering) conditions: static osteogenesis probably depends on inductive factors (such as cytokines and growth factors of endothelial/local origin), whereas dynamic osteogenesis more likely is mainly guided by mechanical signals, sensed by the osteocytes (acting as bone mechanosensors) previously enclosed in preliminary SO-trabecular bone. Thus, SO bone results in a bad quality woven bone, whereas DO bone generally is a lamellar bone, mechanically more resistant because secreted in relation to mechanical stimuli.

The problem is that it becomes crucial in clinical practice to know how long SO goes on before DO starts, to establish when a poor quality bone is reinforced with a bone actually capable of resisting mechanical loading.