Solomon G. Nergadze
Solomon G. Nergadze
affiliation: Department of Biology and Biotechnology - UNIPV
research area(s): Molecular Biology, Cell Biology
Course: Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology
University/Istitution: Università di Pavia

BIRTH DATE: January 31, 1960
BIRTH PLACE: Bagdati, Georgia (The Republic of Georgia)
ADDRESS (Off): Laboratories of Genetics and Microbiology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
LANGUAGES: Georgian (native), English, Italian and Russian.

From Oct. 1, 2011: Assistant Professor of Molecular Biology (BIO/11 - Molecular Biology), Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
Obtained from Italian National Scientific Qualification (ASN): Suitable for Associated Professor in fields of E2/BIO11 Molecular Biology (24/03/2015) and F1/BIO13 Applied Biology (24/11/2014);
11 Gen. 2010: Ph.D. in Genetics and Biomolecular Sciences
1996 - 1998 e 2002 - 2011: Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
2002 - 2011: Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
2000 - 2001: Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada;
1998 - 1999: Section of General Biology and Medical Genetics, Department of Human Pathology and Hereditary, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
1987 – 1991: Completed Ph.D. (Dec. 20, 1991) in Cellular Biology at the Institute of Cytology, St. Peterburg, Russia;
1984 - 1996 e 2001 - 2002: Department of Applied Molecular Biology and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Centre of Genetic Ecology, and Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Institute of Informatics and Complex Automation of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Tbilisi, Georgia;
1982 - 1984: Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Georgian Academy of Sciences, Tbilisi, Georgia.
23 Jun. 1982: Graduated from Tbilisi State University (Diploma cum laude), Faculty of Physics, Majored in Biophysics, Tbilisi, Georgia.

- Member of Scientific Council of the Technological Istitute of Georgia, Tbilisi, Georgia (from 2017)
- Member of College of Teachers of the PHD Program in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Pavia (From 14/07/2013)
- Membro dell'Albo dei Revisori per la valutazione dei Programmi e Prodotti di Ricerca Ministeriale (MIUR) (dal 31/01/2013)
- International Relations Consultant for collaboration between the Tbilisi Iv. Javakhishvili State University (Tbilisi, Georgia) and the University of Pavia. Actually, a student from Tbilisi State University (Faculty of Biology) is visiting the Department of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia.

- Molecular Biology (Modulo II. 3 CFU); 3-years Bachelors Degree Course in Biology Science (course held in italian), Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences,University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy;
- Integrated Laboratory of Molecular Biotechnology - Molecular Biology (3 CFU); 3-years Bachelors Degree Interfaculty Course in Biotechnology (course held in italian), Interfaculty Studies of the Physics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Pharmacy and Medicine and Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
- Scientific supervisor of a Ph.D student of the PHD Program in Genetics, Molecular and Cellular Biology and Supervisor/Co-Supervisor of Bachelors and Master Degree stuents, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
- Seminars in Molecular Biology for undergraduate courses of Biological Sciences (Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences) and of Biotechnology (Interfaculty studies of the Physics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Pharmacy and Medicine and Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy).
Our research projects are focused on the molecular mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the integrity of the mammalian genome which play a central role in carcinogenesis and in evolution. The main structures needed for the maintenance of functional and structural chromosome integrity are centromeres and telomeres.

Research projects in mammalian genome integrity maintenance mechanisms:
- Centromere function and evolution
Our research group (in collaboration with Prof. E. Giulotto and Prof. E. Raimondi, University of Pavia) demonstrated, for the first time, the existence in nature of satellite-free centromeres which are stable and fully functional (Wade et al Science 2009, Nergadze et al, 2018). These centromeres are present in a number of chromosomes in the genus Equus (horses, donkeys, zebras), they represent a unique model system for the study of the epigenetic control of centromere function and of its role in karyotype evolution (Piras et al PLoS Genetics 2010; Purgato et al Chromosoma 2015).

- Telomere transcription
Telomeres are nucleoprotein structures located at the termini of linear chromosomes. Telomeres protect chromosome ends from degradation and from fusion with other telomeres. Telomere malfunctioning causes chromosome rearrangements that can lead to tumorigenesis. Too short telomeres cannot be distinguished from accidental DNA breaks and cause genomic instability. It is known, that the telomeres are transcribed in non-coding RNA molecules named TElomeric Repeat-containing RNA (TERRA) (Azzalin et al. Science 2007). We demonstrated that telomere transcription is strictly regulated (Nergadze et al. RNA 2009) and is probably involved in the maintenance of telomere integrity.

Other relevant projects:
- Telomerase and DNA Repair
- Interstitial telomeric sequences in mammalian genomes
- Organization of satellite DNA sequences in Equidae genome
- Insertion polymorphism of transposable elements in equin genome
- Mitochondrial DNA and mtDNA insertions in the nuclear horse genome
- Immortalization of primary fibroblasts from equus species through an ectopic expression of the human telomerase
- origin of the domestic horse
- Telomere length dynamics in Hirundo rustica
- Gene amplification in DNA-PKcs inhibited cells using the RNAi approach
- Genome organization of cell lines established from human gastric carcinoma
- Telomeres and cell senescence;
- DNA replication in irradiated cells from patients with inherited diseases of chromosome instability
List of Selected publications

1. Cappelletti E, Piras FM, Badiale C, Bambi M, Santagostino M, Vara C, Masterson TA, Sullivan KF, Nergadze SG, Ruiz-Herrera A, Giulotto E. (2019) CENP-A binding domains and recombination patterns in horse spermatocytes. Sci. Rep, 9:15800.
2. Nergadze SG, Piras FM, Gamba R, Corbo M, Cerutti F, McCarter JGW, Cappelletti E, Gozzo F, Harman RM, Antczak DF, Miller D, Scharfe M, Pavesi G, Raimondi E, Sullivan KF, Giulotto E. (2018) Birth, evolution and transmission of mammalian centromeric domains. Genome Research 28(6):789-799.
3. Scietti L, Chiapparino A, De Giorgi F, Fumagalli M, Khoriauli L, Nergadze S, Basu S, Olieric V, Cucca L, Banushi B, Profumo A, Giulotto E, Gissen P, Forneris F. (2018) Molecular architecture of the multifunctional collagen lysyl hydroxylase and glycosyltransferase LH3. Nat Commun. 9(1):3163.
4. Santagostino M, Khoriauli L, Gamba R, Bonuglia M, Klipstein O, Piras FM, Vella F, Russo A, Badiale C, Mazzagatti A, Raimondi E, Nergadze SG, Giulotto E. (2015) Genome-wide evolutionary and functional analysis of the Equine Repetitive Element 1: an insertion in the myostatin promoter affects gene expression. BMC Genet. 16:126.
5. Smirnova A, Gamba R, Khoriauli L, Vitelli V, Nergadze SG, Giulotto E. (2013) TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate with Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines. Front. Oncol. 3:115.
6. Vidale P, Magnani E, Nergadze SG, Santagostino M, Cristofari G, Smirnova A, Chiara Mondello M, Giulotto E. (2012) The catalytic and the RNA subunits of human telomerase are required to immortalize equid primary fibroblasts. Chromosoma 121:475–488.
7. Achilli A, Olivieri A, Soares P, Lancioni H, Hooshiar Kashani B, Perego UA, Nergadze SG, Carossa V, Santagostino M, Capomaccio S, Felicetti M, Al-Achkar W, Penedo MCT, Verini-Supplizi A, Houshmand M, Woodward SR, Semino O, Silvestrelli M, Giulotto E, Pereira L, Bandelt H-J, Torroni A. (2012) Mitochondrial Genomes from Modern Horses Reveal the Major Haplogroups that Underwent Domestication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109:2449-2454.
8. Vidale P, Piras FM, Nergadze SG, Bertoni L, Verini-Supplizi A, Adelson D, Guérin G, Giulotto E. (2011) Chromosomal assignment of six genes (EIF4G3, HSP90, RBBP6, IL8, TERT, and TERC) in four species of the genus Equus. Anim Biotechnol. 22(3):119-123.
9. Piras FM, Nergadze SG, Magnani E, Bertoni L, Attolini C, Khoriauli L, Raimondi E, Giulotto E. (2010) Uncoupling of Satellite DNA and Centromeric Function in the Genus Equus. PLoS Genet 6: e1000845.
10. Nergadze SG, Farnung BO, Wischnewski H, Khoriauli L, Vitelli V, Chawla R, Giulotto E, Azzalin CM. (2009) CpG-island promoters drive transcription of human telomeric repeat-containing RNA. RNA 15: 2186-2194.
11. Wade CM, Giulotto E, Sigurdsson S, Zoli M, Gnerre S, Imsland F, Lear TL, Adelson DL, Bailey E, Bellone RR, Blöcker H, Distl O, Edgar RC, Garber M, Leeb T, Mauceli E, MacLeod JN, Penedo MCT, Raison JM, Sharpe T, Vogel J, Andersson L, Antczak DF, Biagi T, Binns MM, Chowdhary BP, Coleman SJ, Della Valle G, Fryc S, Guérin G, Hasegawa T, Hill EW, Jurka J, Kiialainen A, Lindgren G, Liu J, Magnani E, Mickelson JR, Murray J, Nergadze SG, Onofrio R, Pedroni S, Piras MF, Raudsepp T, Rocchi M, Røed KH, Ryder OA, Searle S, Skow L, Swinburne JE, Syvänen AC, Tozaki T, Valberg SJ, Vaudin M, White JR, Zody MC, Broad Institute Genome Sequencing Platform, Broad Institute Whole Genome Assembly Team, Lander ES, and Lindblad-Toh K. (2009) Genome sequence, comparative analysis and population genetics of the domestic horse (Equus caballus). Science 326: 865-867.
12. Piras M, Nergadze SG, Poletto V, Cerutti F, Ryder OA, Leeb T, Raimondi E, Giulotto E. (2009) Phylogeny of horse chromosome 5 in the genus Equus and centromere repositioning. Cytogenet Genome Res 126: 165-172.
13. Ruiz-Herrera A, Nergadze SG, Santagostino M, Giulotto E. (2008) Telomeric repeats far from the ends: mechanisms of origin and role in evolution. Cytogenet Genome Res 122: 219-228.
14. Nergadze SG, Santagostino M, Salzano A, Mondello C, Giulotto E. (2007) Contribution of telomerase RNA retrotranscription to DNA double-strand break repair during mammalian genome evolution. Genome Biol 8: R260.
15. Carbone L, Nergadze SG, Magnani E, Misceo D., Cardone MF, Roberto R, Bertoni L, Attolini C, Piras MF, de Jong P, Raudsepp T, Chowdhary BP, Guérin G, Archidiacono N, Rocchi M, Giulotto E. (2006) Evolutionary movement of centromeres in horse, donkey, and zebra. Genomics 87: 777-782.
16. Nergadze SG, Rocchi M, Azzalin CM, Mondello C, Giulotto E. (2004) Insertion of Telomeric Repeats at Intrachromosomal Break Sites During Primate Evolution. Genome Res 14: 1704-1710.
17. Barenfeld LS, Nergadze SG, Pleskach N, Procofjeva V, Mikhelson VM. (1998) Decreased number of simultaneously operating adjacent clusters of replicons in some human strains with and without X-irradiation. Mutat Res 408:219-226.
No projects are available to students for the current accademic year.